CRME Working Paper 4(4): Business Model Sociology

(ForCRMEWorkingPapersCover downloading the full paper, please click here)


Oliver Laasch, University of Nottingham Ningbo

Abstract. We are witnessing the emerging study of business models through sociological lenses. Such research has been conducted, for instance, through the lenses of economic sociology, organizational institutionalism, and theories of practice. This brief positioning paper provides an overview of emergent discussions and suggests promising future discussions. While we focus on applications to the phenomenon of alternative business models, we suggest sociological lenses also hold great promise for studying mainstream business models. The main purpose and aspirational contribution of this paper is to provide a stepping stone for the emergence of business model sociology, a new stream of business model research drawing from the rich conceptual and methodological repertoire of sociology.

Posted in CRME Working Papers, Publications

Responsible Management (RM) Literature Base

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We are witnessing the emergence of a research field of responsible management focusing on how managers practice sustainability, responsibility, and ethics in the workplace. This development implies an emancipation of responsible management research from the educational context related of the Principles for Responsible Management Education initiative, which had given rise to the term ‘responsible management’ (education).

The below list includes publications that make explicit reference in their title to responsible management, managing responsibly, or responsible manager(s). For publications that make reference to responsible management education, PRME, or learning in the academic context, please refer to the ‘sister’ blog post, the Responsible Management Learning and Education Literature Base. Please use the contact form to send us further suggestions of publications for inclusion into either one of these lists. For easier access, many of the below references have been linked to domains where they can be accessed. This list has been updated on 15th of October 2018.

Abrams, F. W. 1951. Management’s responsibilities in a complex world. Harvard Business Review, 29(3): 29-34.

Armstrong, J.S. 1977. Social irresponsibility in management. Journal of Business Research, 5(3): 185-213.

Buckingham, J., & Venkataraman, N. (Eds.). 2016. Managing responsibly: Alternative approaches to corporate management and governance. London: Routledge.

Dale, E. 1961. The social and moral responsibilities of large business executives. American Economic Review, 51(2): 540-548.

Davila-Gomez, A. M., & Crowther, D. (Eds.). 2012. Human dignity and managerial responsibility : Diversity, rights, and sustainability. Surrey: Gower.

Ennals, R. 2014. Responsible management: Corporate social responsibility and working life. New York: Springer.

Haski-Leventhal, D. 2018. Strategic CSR: Tools and theories for responsible management. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Hibbert, P., & Cunliffe, A. 2013. Responsible management: Engaging moral reflexive practice through threshold concepts. Journal of Business Ethics, 127(1): 177-188.

Hilliard, I. 2013. Responsible management, incentive systems, and productivity. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(2): 365-377.

Laasch, O. 2017. Defining Responsible management, learning, and education (RMLE):  A social practices perspective. CRME Working Papers, 3(2).

Laasch, O. 2018. Just old wine in new bottles? Conceptual shifts in the emerging field of responsible management. CRME Working Papers, 4(1).

Laasch, O., & Conaway, R. 2015. Principles of responsible management: Glocal sustainability, responsibility, ethics. Mason: Cengage.

Laasch, O., Jamali, D., Freeman, E., & Suddaby, R. (Eds.). 2019. The research handbook of responsible management. Chelthenham: Edward Elgar.

Laasch, O., & Moosmayer, D. 2015. Responsible management learning: Reflecting on the role and use of paradigms for research in sustainability, responsibility, and ethics. CRME Working Papers, 1(1).

Laasch, O., & Moosmayer, D. 2015. Responsible management competences: Building a portfolio for professional competence. Academy of Management Annual Meeting Anaheim [DOI: 10.5465/AMBPP.2016.14172].

Laasch, O., Moosmayer, D., Antonacopoulou, E., & Schaltegger, S. 2017. Responsible management learning: Change and innovation for sustainability, responsibility, ethics. Journal of Business Ethics.

Nonet, G., Kassel, K., & Meijs, L. 2016. Understanding responsible management: Emerging themes and variations from European business school programs. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(4): 717–736.

Ogunyemi, K. 2012. Responsible management: Understanding human nature, ethics, and sustainability. New York: Business Expert Press.

Palazzo, G., & Wentland, M. 2011. Responsible management practices for the 21st century. Paris: Pearson.

Prahalad, C. K. 2010. The responsible manager. Harvard Business Review, 88(1/2): 36.

Schneider, S. C., Zollo, M., & Manocha, R. 2010. Developing socially responsible behaviour in managers. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 39: 21-40.

Sharma, R., Csuri, M., & Ogunyemi, K. 2017. Managing responsibility: A sourcebook for an alternative paradigm. New York: Business Expert Press.

Verbos, A. K., Henry, E., & Peredo, A. M. (Eds.). 2017. Indigenous aspirations and rights: The case for responsible business and management. Oxford: Greenleaf.

Verkerk, M. J., Leede, J., & Nijhof, A. H. 2001. From responsible management to responsible organizations: The democratic principle for managing organizational ethics. Business and Society Review, 4(106): 353-379.

Waddock, S. & Bodwell, C. 2007. Total responsibility management: The manual. Sheffield: Greenleaf.

Waddock, S. & Bodwell, C. 2004. Managing responsibility: What can be learnt from the quality movement? California Management Review, 47(1): pp.25-37

Posted in Concepts, Publications, Research, Resources, Responsible Management Toolbox

Responsible Management Learning and Education (RMLE) Literature

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Photo by Startup Stock Photos from Pexels

The Responsible Management Learning and Education Literature Base aims to support responsible management research and practice by providing an up-to-date compendium of responsible management learning and education publications. The Literature Base may help authors to position their work in the existing literature or practitioners to ground their practice in research. A publication is included if it refers to responsible management learning and education, or to the Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME) in their respective title. If you know a source that qualifies for inclusion, but which is not on this list yet, please let us know here. Also have a look at the ‘sister’ blog post of literature discussing responsible management, responsible managers and their work: The Responsible Management Literature List. This list has last been updated on 19th of September 2018:

Alcaraz, J. & Thiruvattal, E. (2010). An interview with Manuel Escudero, The United Nations’ Principles for Responsible Management Education: A global call for sustainability. Academy of Management Learning & Education, Volume 9(3), pp. 542–550.

Alcaraz, Jose., Marcinkowska, M.W., and Thiruvattal, E. (2011). The UN-principles for responsible management education: Sharing (and evaluating) information on progress. Journal of Global Responsibility 2(2), pp. 151-169.

Araç, S. K. & Madran, C. (2014). Business school as an initiator of the transformation to sustainability: A content analysis for business schools in PRME. Social Business, 4(2), pp. 137-152.

Arruda Filho, N. (2017). The agenda 2030 for responsible management education: An applied methodology. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 183-191.

Asirvatham, S., & Humphries-Kil, M. (2017). Feminist reflections on life in (im) balance, career praxis, and the PRME. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 126-137.

Beddewela, E., Warin, C., Hesselden, F., & Coslet, A. (2017). Embedding responsible management education–Staff, student and institutional perspectives. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 263-279.

Blasco, M. (2012). Aligning the hidden curriculum of management education with PRME: An inquiry-based framework. Journal of Management Education, 36(3), pp. 364-388.

Blewitt, J. (2017). Review of “Educating for responsible management: Putting theory into practice”. Journal of Management Education, 36(3), pp. 395-396.

Borges, J. C., Ferreira, T. C., de Oliveira, M. S. B., Macini, N., & Caldana, A. C. F. (2017). Hidden curriculum in student organizations: Learning, practice, socialization and responsible management in a business school. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 153-161.

Burchell, J., Murray, A. & Kennedy, S. (2014). Responsible management education in UK business schools: Critically examining the role of the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education as a driver for change. Management Learning, 46(4), pp. 479–497.

Carteron, J.C., Haynes, K., Murray, A. (2014). Education for sustainable development, the UNGC PRME initiative, and the sustainability literacy test: Measuring and assessing success. SAM Advanced Management Journal 79 (4), pp. 51-58.

Cornuel, E. & Hommel, U. (2015). Moving beyond the rhetoric of responsible management education. Journal of Management Development, 34(1), pp. 2-15.

Csuri, M., Laasch, O., Nahser, R. & Weybrecht, G. (2013). Inspirational guide for the implementation of PRME: Learning to go beyond. Sheffield: Greenleaf.

Moosmayer, D. C., Waddock, S., Wang, L., Hühn, M.P., Dierksmeier, C. & Gohl, C. (2018). Leaving the road to Abilene: A pragmatic approach to addressing the normative paradox of responsible management education. Journal of Business Ethics, [DOI:]

Doherty, B., Meehan, J. & Richards, A. (2015). The business case and barriers for responsible management education in business schools. Journal of Management Development, 34(1), pp. 34-60.

Dyllick, T. (2015). Responsible management education for a sustainable world: The challenges for business schools. Journal of Management Development, 34(1), pp. 16-33.

Forray, J. M. & Leigh, J. S. (2012). A primer on the principles of responsible management education intellectual roots and waves of change. Journal of Management Education, 36(6), pp. 295-309.

Forray, J., Leigh, J., & Kenworthy, A. L. (2015). Special section cluster on responsible management education: Nurturing an emerging PRME ethos. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), pp. 293-296.

Gentile, M. C. (2017). Giving Voice To Values: A global partnership with UNGC PRME to transform management education. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 121-125.

Global Compact Compact (2007). The Principles for Responsible Management Education, New York: United Nations.

Godemann, J., Haertle, J., Herzig, C. & Moon, J. (2014). United Nations supported principles for responsible management education: Purpose, progress and prospects. Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 62, pp. 16-23.

Goodpaster, Kenneth E., T., Maines, D., Naughton, M. & Shapiro, B. (2017). Using UNPRME to teach, research, and enact business ethics: Insights from the Catholic identity matrix for business schools.” Journal of Business Ethics [DOI 10.1007/s10551-017-3434-5].

Greenberg, D. N., Deets, S., Erzurumlu, S., Hunt, J., Manwaring, M., Rodgers, V., & Swanson, E. (2017). Signing to living PRME: Learning from a journey towards responsible management education. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 205-218.

Gudic, M., Parkes, C., and Rosenbloom, A. (2016). Responsible management education and the challenge of poverty. Sheffield: Greenleaf.

Haertle, J. & Miura, S. (2014). Seven years of development: United Nations-supported principles for responsible management education. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 79(4), 8-17.

Haertle, J., Parkes, C., Murray, A., & Hayes, R. (2017). PRME: Building a global movement on responsible management education. The International Journal of Management Education, 15(2), 66-72.

Haski-Leventhal, D., Pournader, M. & McKinnon, A. (2016). The role of gender and age in business students’ values, CSR attitudes, and responsible management education: Learnings from the PRME international survey. Journal of Business Ethics [DOI 10.1007/s10551-015-2936-2].

Hervieux, C., McKee, M., & Driscoll, C. (2017). Room for improvement: Using GRI principles to explore potential for advancing PRME SIP reporting. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 219-237.

Karakas, F., Sarigollu, E., & Manisaligil, A. (2013). The use of benevolent leadership development to advance principles of responsible management education. Journal of Management Development32(8), 801-822.

Kolb, M., Fröhlich, L., & Schmidpeter, R. (2017). Implementing sustainability as the new normal: Responsible management education–From a private business school’s perspective. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 280-292.

Laasch, O. 2016. What is Responsible Management Learning and Education (RMLE)? CRME Working Papers, 2(1).

Laasch, O. 2017. Responsible management, learning and education: Towards a transdiscipline of sustainability, responsibility, ethics. CRME Working Papers, 3(1).

Laasch, O. 2017. Blurring the boundaries of responsible management, responsible management education and responsible management learning? A social practices perspective. CRME Working Papers, 3(2).

Laasch, O. & Conaway, R. N. (2015). Principles of responsible management: Glocal sustainability, responsibility, ethics. Mason: Cengage.

Laasch, O. & Conaway, R. N. (2016). Responsible business: The textbook for management learning, competence and innovation. 2nd ed. Sheffield: Greenleaf.

Laasch, O., & Moosmayer, D. (2015). Responsible management learning: Reflecting on the role and use of paradigms for research in sustainability, responsibility, and ethics. CRME Working Papers, 1(1).

Laasch, O., & Moosmayer, D. (2015). Competences for responsible management education: A structured literature review. CRME Working Papers, 1(2).

Lavine, M. H. & Roussin, C. J. (2012). From idea to action: Promoting responsible management education through a semester-long academic integrity learning project. Journal of Management Education, 36(3), pp. 428-455.

Lenn, J. D. (2015). Reviews Principles of Responsible Management: Glocal Sustainability, Responsibility, and Ethics by Oliver Laasch and Roger N. Conaway, 2015. 558 pages, paperback. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), pp. 299-301.

Louw, J. (2014). Paradigm change or no change at all? A critical reading of the UN Principles for Responsible Management Education. Journal of Management Education, 39(2), pp. 184-208.

Maloni, M. J., Smith, S. D. & Napshin, S. (2012). A methodology for building faculty support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education. Journal of Management Education, 36(3), pp. 312-336.

Millar,  J. & Koning,  J. (2018) From capacity to capability? Rethinking the PRME agenda for inclusive development in management education. African Journal of Business Ethics, [DOI: 10.15249/11-2-163]

Millar, J., & Price, M. (2018). Imagining management education: A critique of the contribution of the United Nations PRME to critical reflexivity and rethinking management education. Management Learning [DOI 1350507618759828].

Mocny, F. & Laasch, O. (2010). Inspirational guide: Implementing the PRME in executive degree programs, New York: United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education.

Moosmayer, D. (2015). Inspirational guide for the implementation of PRME. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), pp. 303-306.

Moosmayer, D., Laasch O., Parkes, C., & Brown, K. (2019). The Sage handbook of responsible management learning and education. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Moratis, L., (2013). A tale of two standards on responsible management education. Journal of Global Responsibility4(2), pp.138-156.

Murray, A. et al. (2014). Inspirational guide for the implementation of PRME: UK and Ireland edition. Sheffield: Greenleaf.

Nhamo, S. & Nhamo, G. (2014). Assessing progress in implementing UN PRME: International perspectives and lessons from South Africa. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 12(1), pp. 95-108.

Nonet, G., Kassel, K. & Meijs, L. (2016). Understanding responsible management: Emerging themes and variations from European business school programs. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(4), pp. 717–736.

Nonet, G., Kassel, K., & Rodhain, F. (2015). How do Business Schools support
internal innovation and work on their strategy and their reputation? The case of
responsible management. Journal of Innovation Economic & Management, 17(2), 69–

Painter-Morland, M. (2015). Philosophical assumptions undermining responsible management education. Journal of Management Development, 34(1), pp. 61-75.

Parkes, C., Buono, A. F., & Howaidy, G. (2017). The Principles for responsible management education (PRME): The first decade–What has been achieved? The next decade–Responsible management Education’s challenge for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The International Journal of Management Education, 15(2), pp. 61-65.

Perry, M. & Win, S. (2013). An evaluation of PRME’s contribution to responsibility in higher education. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 49, pp. 48-70.

Prandini, M., Vervoort P., & Barthelemess, P. (2012) Responsible management education for 21st century leadership. Central European Business Review, 1(2).

Principles for Responsible Management Education (2012). Inspirational guide for the implementation of PRME: Placing sustainability at the heart of management education. Sheffield: GSE research.

Rasche, A., & Escudero, M. (2009). Leading Change the Role of the Principles for Responsible Management Education. Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts-und Unternehmensethik, 10(2), 244-250.

Rasche, A. & Gilbert, D. U. (2015). Decoupling responsible management education: Why business schools may not walk their talk. Journal of Management Inquiry, 24(3), pp. 239-252.

Rimanoczy, I. (2016). Stop teaching: Principles and practices for responsible management education (PRME Book Collection). New York: Business Expert Press.

Rive, J., Bonnet, M., Parmentier, C., Pelazzo-Plat, V., & Pignet-Fall, L. (2017). A contribution to the laying of foundations for dialogue between socially responsible management schools. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 238-248.

Rosenbloom, A., Gudić, M., Parkes, C., & Kronbach, B. (2017). A PRME response to the challenge of fighting poverty: How far have we come? Where do we need to go now?. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 104-120.

Schneider, S. C., Zollo, M., & Manocha, R. 2010. Developing socially responsible behaviour in managers. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 39: 21-40.

Sobczak, A., & Mukhi, U. (2015). The role of UN Principles for Responsible Management Education in stimulating organizational learning for global responsibility within business schools: An interview with Jonas Haertle. Journal of Management Inquiry,  25(4), pp. 431-437.

Solitander, N., Fougère, M., Sobczak, A. & Herlin, H. (2012). We are the champions: Organizational learning and change for responsible management education. Journal of Management Education, 36(3), pp. 337-363.

Storey, M., Killian, S., & O’Regan, P. (2017). Responsible management education: Mapping the field in the context of the SDGs. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 93-103.

Sunley, R., & Leigh, J. (2016). Educating for responsible management: Putting theory into practice. Sheffield: Greenleaf.

Tripathi, S. K., Amann, W., & Kamuzora, F. R. (2013). Developing responsible managers for new generation organizations: Why existing business education system needs humanistic shift? IBA Jounal of Management and Leadership, 5(1), 56-63.

Tyran, K. L. (2017). Transforming students into global citizens: International service learning and PRME. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 162-171.

Verbos, A. K. (2016). Embedding the PRME into business law classes. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 16(4), pp. 11-24.

Verbos, A. K. & Humphries, M. T. (2015). Indigenous wisdom and the PRME: Inclusion or illusion?. Journal of Management Development, 34(1), pp. 90-100.

Verbos, A. K. & Humphries, M. T. (2015). Amplifying a relational ethic: A contribution to PRME praxis. Business and Society Review, 120(1), pp. 23-56.

Verkerk, M. J., Leede, J., & Nijhof, A. H. (2001). From responsible management to responsible organizations: The democratic principle for managing organizational ethics. Business and Society Review, 4(106), pp. 353-379.

Waddock, S., Rasche, A., Werhane, P. H. & Unruh, G. (2010). The Principles for Responsible Management Education: Where do we go from here?. In: D. Fisher & D. Swanson, eds. Got ethics? Toward assessing business education. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, pp. 13-28.

Wankel, C., & Stachowicz-Stanusch, A. (2014). Principles for responsible management education: A pathway to management education for integrity. Organization and Management, 1(B), pp. 37-59.

Wersun, A. (2017). Context and the institutionalisation of PRME: The case of the University for the Common Good. The International Journal of Management Education15(2), 249-262.

Young, S., & Nagpal, S. (2013). Meeting the growing demand for sustainability-focused management education: A case study of a PRME academic institution. Higher Education Research & Development, 32(3), pp. 493-506.

Posted in Concepts, Publications, Research

CRME Working Paper 4(1): Conceptual Shifts in RM

CoverOldWine(For downloading the full paper, please click here)


Oliver Laasch, University of Nottingham Ningbo

Abstract. While responsible management increasingly consolidates as a field of study, the question about the identity of this emerging field arises. Are there novel conceptual themes or is it all just ‘old wine in new bottles’? In this paper I propose a non-exclusive list of three conceptual shifts distinguishing responsible management from related discussions: A first shift moves the corporate sustainability, CSR, and business ethics discussions from the organizational to the individual level of the responsible manager and of her processes of managing responsibly. A second shift moves the responsible management learning and education discussion’s focus on academic practices to managerial practices. A third shift moves the discussion centered on responsible leaders, social entrepreneurs, ethics officers, or environmental managers, from unique specialized managers to every ‘normal’ mainstream responsible manager. In summary, the field of responsible management studies the integration of sustainability, responsibility, and ethics (SRE) into the managerial practice(s) of ‘normal’ managers. The conceptual shifts not only delineate the responsible management discussion, but also imply a potentially synergetic connection to related fields such as micro-CSR, humanistic management, and to the professionalization of management discussion.

Posted in Concepts, CRME Working Papers, Publications, Research

HOW TO harness digital badges for RML?

Regina Obexer (Management Center Innsbruck)

 Abstract: Digital badges are increasingly popular tools to certify extracurricular learning in higher education. Their digital nature, their flexibility, and their potential to encourage students to develop their self-directed learning skills are attractive characteristics that can be well aligned with Responsible Management Learning (RML) (Laasch & Moosmayer, 2015). This article explains the features of badges in general and describes what characteristics of a badge make it a suitable tool for RML. The “Application” section provides a step-by-step description of what is required when implementing a badge in higher education.

Context: Responsible management learning experiences beyond the core curriculum

The systematic and coherent development of student awareness, competence and skills that enable them to be responsible and ethical leaders in their future career requires curricular integration of these learning goals (Molthan-Hill, Hill & Parkes 2017, Warin & Beddewela 2016). However, there is also merit in offering learning opportunities for responsible management education beyond what is included in the regular study program (see e.g. Sunley & Coleman 2016 for a discussion on the “responsible learning mindset”). Many higher education institutions do this through short certificate programs (for example in business ethics) or individual courses offered by their dedicated PRME or sustainability Offices, through the Careers and Employment Office, or other institutional units.

Digital badges are one novel approach to offering RML experiences and credentialing these in a way that is attractive to students and potential employers. They are not only a modern way of displaying student learning and achievement, but offer a range of advantages particularly for RML both in terms of student motivation and skills development. If designed appropriately, badges can have a range of advantages.

This article describes what badges are, what advantages they offer for RML, and how they can be implemented. It is based on the experiences and lessons learned from a badge pilot program at Management Center Innsbruck in Austria, where the badge “Responsible Management” was introduced to certify student participation in a range of learning experiences, some mandatory and some elective, to develop their knowledge and skills in this area.

Concept: Digital badges to increase and demonstrate competencies and engagement in RML

A digital badge is an online record of achievement that documents the competences achieved and the work required to earn the badge (Educause Learning Initiative, 2017). It also contains information about the issuing institution, the issue date, and any additional data the issuer (institution awarding the badge) chooses to include. Badges are gaining increasing popularity and relevance as flexible digital credentials that allow for the recognition of informal and non-traditional learning, and play an increasingly important role in the context of self-directed and lifelong learning (for a discussion of the role of alternative credentialing in life-long learning, see e.g. Fong, Janzow & Peck, 2016).


Badges can be issued via dedicated online badge platforms, or through an institution’s Learning Management System, or also by using self-hosted badging systems. The open standards employed in technical badge development enable good interoperability between the different systems used to generate badges. This means that badge earners (learners) do not have to worry about what issuing method the organisation they learn with uses, and badges can generally be moved easily across platforms (Educause Learning Initiative, 2013).

In Higher Education, badges are particularly popular as a mechanism to recognise extracurricular efforts and achievements, and are an excellent strategy to motivate students to “go the extra mile” in important areas of skills development. In the context of RML, badges are a promising format at the intersection of university learning and career readiness.

They can include or recognise a variety of learning experiences in different “sizes” and formats

So far, there has been little agreement or standardization in terms of the “size” or “amount” of learning a badge should be awarded for. Whilst this is also one of the drawbacks of badges (particularly for employers or “consumers” of badges), it is also an advantage in that it provides for complete freedom for badge issuing institutions to decide what learning experiences their badges are awarded for. In an RML context, it means that badges can be awarded for a range of learning experiences such as project participation in workshops, work placements, service learning and community projects, and engagement for specific activities (for example involvement in PRME student initiatives).

They are competency based, thus encouraging a focus on competencies and skills rather than content

Responsible Management Learning must go beyond content acquisition (knowing and awareness) and into the realms of being (e.g. developing self-awareness and reflection) and doing (development of applied skills and competences) to have a lasting effect.  Badges are by design competency-based, i.e. they certify that defined skills have been achieved. Thus they foster both a discussion amongst those planning a badge about what competencies RML actually encompasses as well as a focus amongst student participants on the competencies they work towards when completing the necessary badge activities. This is well aligned with the fact that some of the more effective learning strategies for RML include experiential, project based, and real world learning.

They can enable interaction amongst diverse student cohort in interdisciplinary contexts

Amongst other things, RML is about being able to accept and understand others’ perspectives and values, to develop tolerance, and to take into consideration diverse world views and values. Through participation in extracurricular activities such as badges, student meet and work with peers from different study programs, different disciplines, and also different cultures of international students take part. This mix can result in a richer learning experience particularly when it comes to understanding different value sets, cultural contexts, or ethical standpoints.

They allow students to demonstrate engagement and motivation above and beyond what is required, and to add to their career skills portfolio

Badges are an excellent way to recognise student engagement above and beyond what is required in their regular study program. Badges can be awarded for activities such as being a student representative, organising or supporting a student initiative or event, or participating in community service projects. They can therefore be an additional motivating factor for students to engage in this type of activities, particularly when students understand that badges add value to their career skills portfolio and increase their attractiveness for potential employers. The skills associated with responsible management learning are increasingly attractive to companies, and being able to demonstrate these through a badge adds to a student’s “Unique Selling Proposition” in the job seeking process.

They have great potential for inter-institutional cooperation

If badges have online components such as the requirement to complete online courses, MOOCs, or webinars, there is great potential for collaboration across different institutions. Students could easily attend online events and activities that are offered by a partner university. This way, the partnering institutions could both enlarge their educational offering, increase the participant numbers of online courses, and allow their students to interact with peers and lecturers from other organisations (possibly in an international context). Collaboration is also an option with companies and potential employees as many larger organisations are also starting to offer badges in their areas of expertise. Badges could be co-offered or also simply endorsed by each participating institution.

Badges are natively digital and highly visible in that space

In our digitized world, badges are an increasingly accepted currency. They are created in digital format, and can be managed and shared by students across their social media platforms and online spaces. Open badges are built on an architecture and technical standards that allows them to be shared freely, and they come with a level of certification that is traceable back to the issuing institution. They are associated with a visual image (the badge graphic) and are eye-catching and attractive. This makes them highly visible in the digital space – an attribute that is particularly valuable in recruiting processes, where that little special extra can make all the difference. Many badge programs also include elements of gamification, i.e. learners are driven to learn more through the prospect of getting to the next badge “level” (e.g. bronze, silver, gold), or through earning “points” towards a badge. This gamification element can be an extra motivating factor.

Badges can encourage the development of self-directed and life-long learning

Badges are one way of documenting and managing learning outside a formal context, and are thus a good vehicle to get students started in developing skills in self-directed and life-long learning. By earning badges, students start to understand that they are the ones who are responsible for their ongoing learning and development, and that they can constantly enhance their knowledge and skills via a range of learning avenues, particularly in the digital space.

Application: Creating a RML badge program

Introducing badges is not difficult from a technical point of view, but it takes a lot of conceptual planning and informed decision making that includes consultation with key stakeholders and consideration of institutional needs and contexts. In the roll-out phase, clear and targeted communication are key to informing learners of the availability, characteristics, benefits and requirements of earning a badge. The following section outlines the main steps in this process and is illustrated in Figure 1 by key experiences we made at MCI with our badge pilot project.


Figure 1. Steps in the Process of Using Badges for Responsible Management Learning


Step 1: Define what a badge means in your context

First of all, you will have to decide on the nature and the size of your badge, i.e. the amount of workload and individual learning experiences (be it courses, workshops, projects, engagement, etc.) you want your students to complete before they earn a badge. Be careful not to make your badge to small (so it has no value for your students or those who consume the badge) or too big (so it is too much work for students to do). Your decision here will depend on what you want to achieve with the badge and what your wider context is, e.g. if there are other badges you want to offer, if you want your badge to be comparable to others, or if you indeed want to use a staggered system, e.g. with bronze, silver and gold badges that build on each other. Finding the right balance here is important as it will determine what you can expect your students to achieve in terms of learning outcomes for a badge.

Step 2: Give your badge a name and an image

At first sight, badges are visual items, and their look plays a crucial role in catching people’s attention and interest, so it is important to choose a suitable image. Aspects you may like to consider here are alignment with your corporate style (colour scheme, fonts, imagery, etc.) as well as the requirement to have the visual style you create for your first badges also hold for subsequent badges or series of badges. The name you choose for your badge should be clear and convey succinctly what the badge earner has learned so the value of the badge is conveyed immediately (particularly to badge consumers).

Step 3: Determine the learning outcomes and learning activities for your badge

This step is very much like designing a (small) curriculum, and it helps to choose a “backward design” process. You will first need to think about what outcomes in terms of attitudes, knowledge, skills and competencies your students should achieve in order to earn a badge. Ensure that you frame these in terms of competencies that are meaningful and relevant to students and potential employers alike. At this point, you may also want to think about the evidence you will need to see in order to assess learner achievement.

Step 4: Plan your learning and teaching events

When it comes to planning for the learning (and teaching) activities you want to include in your badge, it is advisable to build on what is already there (e.g. existing workshops, projects, or lectures) and to think laterally about what can be included. If you decide to include less “defined” learning and engagement activities, e.g. student engagement in service learning project or the like, make sure you have a way of “measuring” the effort here, or at least have a definition of what the minimum requirements are and who can confirm that student has achieved them so that the activity can be counted towards the badge.

Step 5: Determine how you will administer and issue the badge

This step including planning how your badge earners will register for badge activities, how you will track their progress, and how you will issue your badge. A lot of this has to do with the technology you plan to use. Some badge platforms such as Open Badge Academy allow badge earners to upload evidence towards achieving their badge, and if there are no existing systems at your institution that you can use, this may be a good option. If you can employ your institution’s Learning Management System or Student Management System, it may be preferable to use these (also in view of data protection regulations you need to consider). The decision how you will issue badges is another important aspect. For this decision, you need to keep in mind a number of key selection criteria such as interoperability, ease of use, costs, accessibility, and vendor reputation.

Step 6: Engage your stakeholders

Once you have been through steps 1 to 5, you are ready to advertise your badge. We recommend starting with a pilot project and having a smaller group of students go through your first badge iteration. This gives you the opportunity to try your badge processes and gain valuable student feedback whilst still being able to make changes as you go without losing face. Engaging other stakeholders along the way is equally important, including your university leadership team, faculty, other support services such as IT Services, and student representatives. They can give you valuable feedback about embedding badges within the context of your institution and will provide perspectives you may not have considered.

Step 7: Communicate and celebrate

Communication about your digital badge program is important from a range of perspectives. You need to communicate to make the university community aware of the nature, existence and value of participating in your digital badge program. Make sure to also celebrate your badges and your badge earners (and help them make the badge visible) once the first lot of badges are issued. In addition to enhancing your graduates’ career skills and competencies (including responsible management awareness and skills), badges also have value as a tool to market your institution as they are displayed by your badge earners on a range of social media platforms – free advertising for your organisation as an innovative educational institution.

Step 8: Keep improving the process

Once your badge program is up and running, continuous improvement and innovation will keep it alive. Keep coming back to your focus in terms of the types of competencies your badges convey, and try to include employer needs as much as possible. Include your students’ ideas, particularly when it comes to engagement. Go beyond your institution in terms of the learning experiences and activities that count towards a badge (e.g. by recognising community project, or indeed the completion of MOOCs or other, informal forms of learning). And last but not least, keep focussing on badges as an important factor in helping your students become life-long, responsible learners.

Step 9: Share your knowledge and learnings with your community

When implementing digital badges, project teams will come across a range of issues and unforeseen challenges, and they will learn a lot in the process of planning and rolling our their badge program. Sharing the lessons learned with peers through publications, conference presentation, entries on social media platforms or other means, will help the higher education community progress the thinking and practice in digital badge development. At the same time, it will also put the institution on the map as a “badge-active” university, and will pave the way for possible collaborations in this space.


Educause Learning Initiative (2013). 7 Things You Should Read About Badges. Available from [last accessed 12 May 2018].

Fong, J.Janzow P., & Peck K. (2016). Demographic shifts in educational demand and the rise of alternative credentials. Available from

Laasch, O., & Moosmayer, D. (2015). Responsible management learning: Reflecting on the role and use of paradigms for research in sustainability, responsibility, and ethics. CRME Working Papers, 1(1).

Molthan-Hill, P., Hill, S. and Parkes, C. (2017). A new framework for embedding sustainability into the business school curriculum. In: P. Molthan-Hill (Ed.), The business student’s guide to sustainable management: principles and practice. A Greenleaf Publishing Book. London, New York: Routledge, pp. 13-50.

Sunley, R. & Coleman, M. (2016). Establishing a foundational responsible learning mind-set for business in the 21st century. In: R. Sunley, J. Leigh (Eds.), Educating for responsible management education. Putting Theory into Practice. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing, pp. 28-51.

Warin, C. and Beddewela, E. (2016). Drivers, barriers and enablers of institutionalizing responsible management education. In: R. Sunley, J. Leigh (Eds.), Educating for responsible management education. Putting Theory into Practice. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing, pp. 301-323.





Posted in Educational Design, Resources, RMLeHOW

Call: Special Issue of International Journal of Management Education

Sustainable Development Goals

In calling for systemic change in business and management education to accelerate progress on the UN Sustainable Development Goals and to sensitize current and future business leaders to the inherent values of sustainability and responsibility, the United Nations Global Compact and Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME) emphasize that business and management institutions play a key role in shaping the skills and mindsets of these leaders, and act as powerful drivers of corporate sustainability.

Please see the full special issue call here.

Posted in Calls, Publications

Call: Responsible Management Student Voices Video Contest

prme4us_imgA PRME Chapter DACH initiative led by Management Center Innsbruck invites students from institutions who are PRME signatories to participate in the video competition “Student Voices on Responsible Management Education”. What an exciting opportunity to learn more about students’ views on responsible management learning and education!  For further information, please click here.

Posted in Calls

AOM PDW Invite: Responsible Management Education in Action

AOM2018ThemeWe are looking forward to seeing you at the fifth anniversary event of our Responsible Management Education in Action professional development workshop. The workshop will take place at the AOM annual meeting, Saturday, Aug 11 2018 8:00AM – 10:00AM at Hyatt Regency Chicago in the room Comiskey. For details, please have a look at the AOM meeting program, or at the full PDW proposal document by clicking here.

Posted in Courses, Events, Networking

Call: Responsible Management Research Conference in Cologne

Please find the call for contributions here:

Posted in Calls, Events, Networking, Research

Kahoot Quizzes on Principles of Responsible Management

Kahoot Screenshot

Let’s Kahoot!

Kahoot! is a game based classroom response system played by the whole class in real time. Multiple-choice questions are projected on the screen. Students answer the questions with their smartphone, tablet or computer. Kahoot! can be used for class work, group work, self-study and many other educational purposes. It’s extremely easy to use and requires little to no time of preparation: just click on the links below and play!

Everyone here on the team for the second edition of the “Principles of Responsible Management: Glocal Sustainability, Responsibility, and Ethics” textbook has been working non-stop to finalise edits on the book before the deadline. In the meantime, we’ve designed 15 interactive quizzes for responsible learning and education. We’ve been running them in classes now for six weeks trialing them and so far they’ve proven to be really fun AND a great way to test that students are actually doing the reading and, more importantly, understand what they’re reading. For any questions or comments about the quizzes please don’t hesitate to contact us using the contact form. -Have fun playing! Alexandra Barrueta-

Links to Quizzes

Context of Responsible Management (Chapter 1)

Responsible Management (Chapter 2)

Sustainability (Chapter 3)

Responsibility (Chapter 4)

Ethics (Chapter 5)

Strategy (Chapter 6)

Entrepreneurship (Chapter 7)

Organization (Chapter 8)

Operations (Chapter 9)

Supply Chain Management (Chapter 10)

Human Resources (Chapter 11)

Marketing (Chapter 12)

International Business and Management (Chapter 13)

Accounting and Controlling (Chapter 14)

Finance (Chapter 15)


Posted in Courses, Educational Design, Publications, Resources